GNU與Linux的關係

GNU是一項自由軟件(系統也算)計劃,發起者與領導人是Richard Stallman。原本他工作時世界的program公司還會發放代碼,但後來有一打印機事件,沒有代碼,不擅交際的Richard去請求代碼,對方說簽了和公司簽保密協議,直接拒絕。

此事後,Richard開始思考代碼是否該自由發放這些,亦預感專有軟件將席捲世間。想出自由軟件的概念,發明了GPL協議。

打印機事件Richard從此牴觸專有軟件。

後來Unix系統也向專有發展等事件,Richard辭職,意欲開發個完全自由的操作系統GNU。

GNU軟件陸續開發,惟缺Kernel,GNU Hurd(不是內核,包含內核)時至今日仍未正式發佈。Linus Torvalds以學校教學爲目的系統爲靈感用GNU軟件開發了最早的Linux,讓其兼容GNU軟件。以GPL發佈LINUX。Hacker們意識到他們想的自由操作系統可達成了,許多人加入LINUX的改進。

Richard Stallman聯繫Linus,於是LINUX代替了GNU Hurd成爲GNU操作系統的Kernel。
因Linux不屬GNU計劃內,Richard主張稱爲GNU/Linux。(似乎是因爲說的太晚,很多人都是把整個系統稱Linux)

後有Linux-libre的GNU計劃,刪除了Linux所有專有部分,是LINUX(LIBREL)成爲GNU計劃的一部分。

Richard Stallman 還創建了非盈利組織Free Software Foundation(Richard自己沒薪)。所以GNU與FSF關係很大。

FSF

GNU

Richard的個人網站

I'd just like to interject for a moment. What you're referring to as Linux, is in fact, GNU/Linux, or as I've recently taken to calling it, GNU plus Linux. Linux is not an operating system unto itself, but rather another free component of a fully functioning GNU system made useful by the GNU corelibs, shell utilities and vital system components comprising a full OS as defined by POSIX.

Many computer users run a modified version of the GNU system every day, without realizing it. Through a peculiar turn of events, the version of GNU which is widely used today is often called "Linux", and many of its users are not aware that it is basically the GNU system, developed by the GNU Project.

There really is a Linux, and these people are using it, but it is just a part of the system they use. Linux is the kernel: the program in the system that allocates the machine's resources to the other programs that you run. The kernel is an essential part of an operating system, but useless by itself; it can only function in the context of a complete operating system. Linux is normally used in combination with the GNU operating system: the whole system is basically GNU with Linux added, or GNU/Linux. All the so-called "Linux" distributions are really distributions of GNU/Linux.

--Richard Stallman

Tux

Linux的標誌Tux

GNU

GNU(Wildebeest)

LL

Linux-libre

LINUX是kernel內核而非OS,雖然有 沒GNU軟件的發行版如Alpine, 我覺得還是應該將稱呼發行版帶上GNU如GNU/LINUX ,lignux之類,畢竟Linux是用GNU軟件寫的,也是用GNU的協議GPL發佈並成就的。請在說內核時才說 Linux ,說系統加GNU。

所以我之前知道後就改說法了,加上GNU複雜了些。總之這樣就是說整個系統,因爲還會說GNU/Linux,先解釋下。

The Free Software Song

Join us now and share the software;
You'll be free, hackers, you'll be free.
Join us now and share the software;
You'll be free, hackers, you'll be free.

Hoarders can get piles of money,
That is true, hackers, that is true.
But they cannot help their neighbors;
That's not good, hackers, that's not good.

When we have enough free software
At our call, hackers, at our call,
We'll kick out those dirty licenses
Ever more, hackers, ever more.

Join us now and share the software;
You'll be free, hackers, you'll be free.
Join us now and share the software;
You'll be free, hackers, you'll be free.

                                                               (Youtube有Richard自己打拍唱的)

之前堆一貼裏寫的亂,之後重新整理內容發帖。