大聲告訴我,今天是什麼日子?

今天是全部聖人之主日,全部聖人日,又稱眾聖日、諸聖日,俗稱萬聖節。英文稱作 the Synaxis of All Saints, the Sunday of All Saints, the Feast of All Saints, All Saints' Day,又稱 All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas。

通常說到萬聖節,人們可能會想到 10 月 31 日,小孩裝扮成鬼怪或穿上其他各種服裝,去家家戶戶敲門要糖,trick or treat 的夜晚。10 月 31 日的節日,英文稱作 Halloween,由 hallow, even 這兩個詞組成。Hallow 是「聖,神聖」的意思,even 是「夜晚」的意思。Halloween 就是萬聖夜,萬聖節前夕。類似的 Christmas eve,就是聖誕夜,聖誕日前夕,俗稱平安夜。盎格利(Anglican)教會在晚間的一種禮儀、敬拜,evensong 晚禱,字面義就是 even song 夜晚之歌。晚禱通常包括祈禱、聖詠(詩篇)、與短歌(canticle)。

眾聖夜之所以是眾聖日前夕,聖誕夜之所以是聖誕日前夕,是因爲西方傳統上以夜晚、日落爲一日之始。「有晚上,有早晨,這是第一日。」(起源之書 Genesis 1:5) 神 創造萬物乃是 ex nihilo 出於無物、憑藉無物、依靠無物,可謂「無中生有」,起始於空虛混沌的土地、深淵面上的黑暗,因此一日也起始於無光、無聲、一切皆無的黑暗的夜晚。當然,now that we have come to the setting of the sun, and behold the light of the evening,在教會裏、與我們心中與生活中,仍然有 神 與我們同在的光,天上也有反射著正義之日(瑪拉基書 4:2)光的月。

自 主 之四世紀以來,各地教會紀念全部殉道者的慶典多在復活日與聖靈日(Pentecost 五旬日)前後。

東方教會,即 Eastern 東方正教會的眾聖日是聖靈日後的第一個主日。今年就是 06-27。選擇這個日期可能與使徒行實 Acts 2 的記敘有關,強調聖人與聖靈的關係,聖人「領受所賜的聖靈」(行實 Acts 2:38)。

東方教會(聶斯托里派)的眾聖日是復活日後的第一個週六(Friday,俗稱週五)。週六是亞當被創造的那一天,代表人類。選擇這個日期可能象徵,聖人會像 主 ,初熟之果一般復活;聖人是 主 通過自己的受死、復活新創造的人類;或聖人是全新,重生(福音依約安 John 3:3),信奉、信靠復活且永在的 主 神 的人。

西方的萬聖夜是 10-31。西方教會的諸聖日是 11-01。在 9 世紀,不列顛島上的一些教會開始在 11-01 慶祝全部聖人。在 10 世紀,羅馬的宗主教格列高里四世將這項傳統推廣至全公教會。(Wikipedia

今天眾聖日聖禮中的頌歌令我非常感動,包括幾首 stichera、aposticha、與 troparion。我有點餓了,所以先抄錄英文,吃點東西後再將它們翻譯成中文。

‘Lord I call upon thee’

Tone 8

4 stichera for the Resurrection

Tone 6 (from the Pentecostarion ‘Having placed all their hope’)

The Saviour's inspired Disciples
became instruments of the Spirit through faith.
They were scattered to the ends of the earth,
sowing the glad tidings of the True Faith.
From their divine garden the army of martyrs blossomed in grace.
They became images of Christ‘s saving Passion,
enduring every kind of torture, scourging, and fire. //
Now they boldly pray for our souls.

The noble martyrs, burning with love of the Lord,
laughed at the fires and were consumed as burning coals.
Through Christ, they burned the withered arrogance of error.
They stilled the roaring of beasts with the voice of their prayers.
Beheaded, they decapitated the demonic hosts. //
By the shedding of their own blood they watered the Church with faith.

The heroic martyrs wrestled with beasts and were torn by their claws.
They were dismembered, slashed with swords, and shot with arrows;
they were consumed in the flames and pierced with lances.
All this they willingly endured,
for already they saw their unfading crowns, and the glory of Christ, //
before whom they boldly pray for our souls.

Come, let us praise the heroes of our faith:
Apostles, Martyrs, holy Priests, and noble Women!
They fought for the faith in every part of the earth.
Though born of flesh, they were united with the heavenly hosts.
Through their sufferings, they triumphed over evil by the grace of Christ.
As unfading lights, they illumine our hearts, //
and with boldness they pray for our souls.

Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit,

Tone 6 (from the Pentecostarion)

O divine choir of martyrs,
you are the pillars of the Church and the fulfillment of the Gospel.
By your deeds you have fulfilled the Saviour's words.
You have closed the gates of hell and defended the Church.
The shedding of your blood has dried up the libations poured out to idols.
Your sacrifice has nourished the body the faithful.
Standing crowned before God, you amazed the Angels. //
Pray unceasingly to him that our souls may be saved!

now and ever, and unto ages of ages. Amen.

Tone 8 (Theotokion — Dogmatikon)

Aposticha

Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit,

Tone 6 (from the Pentecostarion)

Come, O faithful,
let us celebrate in song today,
glorifying the memory of all the Saints!
Rejoice, glorious Apostles, Prophets, Martyrs, and Hierarchs!
Rejoice, O company of all the Just!
Rejoice, you ranks of holy Women! //
Pray that Christ will grant our souls great mercy!

Tone 8

now and ever, and unto ages of ages. Amen.

Tone 6 (Theotokion)

My Maker and Redeemer, Christ the Lord,
was born of you, O most pure Virgin.
By accepting my nature, he freed Adam from his ancient curse.
Unceasingly we magnify you as the Mother of God!
Rejoice, O celestial Joy!
Rejoice, O Lady:
the Protection, Intercession, and Salvation of our souls!

Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit,

Troparion — All Saints

Tone 4

As with fine porphyry and royal purple,
thy Church has been adorned with thy martyrs' blood shed throughout all the world.
She cries to thee, O Christ God:
Send down thy bounties on thy people,
grant peace to thy habitation, and great mercy to our souls.

now and ever, and unto ages of ages. Amen.

‘Rejoice’

今天還有一件高興的事,就是我知道了幾位解釋聖經的神學家。聖金口約安是少數解釋整篇起源之書、傳統、古典的神學家。大多數神學家只解釋前三章關於創世的紀錄。聖金口約安對羅馬書 9 的解釋,我印象也很深刻。聖金口約安在安提阿接受教育,他老師的名字我沒有記住,但好像是位盲人。聖金口約安學識淵博,解釋了聖經中很多書。

聖奧古斯丁就是只解釋起源之書前三章的神學家之一。他好像在五處不同的地方解釋過起源之書前三章。

我讀過對話家格列高里(Gregory the Dialogian)解釋約伯傳的故事,當時他還不是羅馬的宗主教。我讀約伯傳的時候也可以研讀他的解釋。不知道聖格列高里有沒有解釋其他書。

對文字,尤聖經的解釋,英文爲 exegesis,釋經的知識、學問、學科爲 hermeneutics。

現在的計畫就是讀完一篇剛開始讀的神學文章,寫一篇簡介、推薦,到時候發出來。文章的題目暫時保密。然後開始系統性地讀一遍整本聖經。以前也想過自己試著理解聖經,但我實在愚鈍,需要依靠智慧的神學家的解釋。現在知道了有哪些神學家解釋聖經,只差執行我的計畫了。

1 Like

我說了呀,第一句話就是

是 06-27 發的。

小紅書的哏。

今日頭條沒有哏。我想玩小紅書的哏。OK?

太低級不想玩。你管得著?